Scattering fundamentals

- Definition of scattering cross-section. The radar equation
- Statistical characterization of random surfaces
- A simple model
- Electromagnetic models
- Maxwell's equations and scattering
- The Kirchhoff (tangent plane or Physical Optics) approximation and further approximations: Stationary Phase (Geometric Optics) and Scalar approximations.
- Limitations of the Kirchhoff approximation
- The Stationary Phase or Geometric Optics approximation
- The Scalar Approximation
- The Small Perturbation Method (SPM)
- The Two-Scale (Composite or Hybrid) Model.
- Integral equation methods
- The Doppler spectrum of the radar return
- Grazing incidence
- Polarization effects
- The dielectric properties of sea water